Bitumen Emulsion

乳状液可以定义为一种液体的小液滴在另一种液体中的分散。沥青乳液一般属于水包油型乳化液,在水中用少量乳化剂分散沥青。该剂在正常储存条件下稳定沥青颗粒。沥青乳液由于其安全性、易操作性和良好的附着力,在道路建设和维护中得到了广泛的应用。

乳液沥青的生产至少包括两个步骤:水相(皂)制备和实际乳液生产。水相是在一个水箱中制备的,加热的水、乳化剂和其他乳状化学品被计量并适当混合溶液。在乳化液生产过程中,沥青和预制水相被加入胶体磨中。

emulsion bitumen

下面给出了两种不同的沥青乳液分类方法。

  1. 基于表面电荷
  2. 根据设定时间

BASED ON SURFACE CHARGE

根据表面电荷的类型,沥青乳液主要分为以下两种类型。

  1. 阴离子沥青乳液
  2. 阳离子沥青乳液

如果是阴离子沥青乳液,则沥青颗粒带负电,而对于阳离子乳液,沥青颗粒则带正电。

emulsion bitumen
Typical anionic bitumen emulsion
emulsion bitumen
Typical Cationic Bitumen Emulsion

使用的乳液沥青(即阴离子或阳离子)的选择取决于施工用骨料的矿物成分。如果是富硅集料,则集料表面带有电负电荷。因此,应使用阳离子乳液。这将有助于更好地摊铺和粘结沥青与骨料。

BASED ON SETTING TIME

乳液沥青应用于骨料时,水开始蒸发,导致沥青与水分离。然后沥青摊铺在骨料表面,起到粘结材料的作用,慢慢达到强度。

根据水蒸发和沥青颗粒与水分离的速度,它分为以下三种类型。

  1. 速凝乳化沥青(RS)
  2. 中凝乳液(MS)
  3. 缓凝乳液(SS)

注:此处“凝结”一词不应表示达到强度,而是指沥青与水分离所需的时间。

Uses of Emulsion

Anionic Cationic
RS MS SS RS MS SS
Plant Mixes
Open-graded
Dense-graded
Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP)
Stockpile mix
Pre-coated chips
Mix Paving
Open-graded
Slurry
Slurry for capeseal
Micro surfacing
In-Place Mixes
RAP
Dense-graded
Soil stabilization
Spray Applications
Chipseal
Fog seal–cement curing
Tack coat
Prime
Dust palliative
Mulch
Penetration macadam
Other
Waterproofing coatings
Driveway and footpath sealers

Specifications

Property Min Max Test Method
Test on Emulsions
Viscosity, Saybolt Furol at 50 °C, SFS 100 ASTM D244
Storage stability test, 24-h, % 1 ASTM D6930
Demulsibility, 35 mL, 0.8 % dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate, % 20 ASTM D6936
Coating ability and water resistance:
Particle charge test positive ASTM D244
                          Sieve test, % 0.1 ASTM D6933
Distillation:
Oil distillate, by volume of emulsion, % 3 ASTM D6997
Residue, % 60 ASTM D244
Tests on residue from distillation test:
Penetration, 25°C (77°F), 100 g, 5 s 40 250 ASTM D5
Ductility, 25°C (77°F), 5 cm/min, cm 20 ASTM D113
Solubility in trichloroethylene, % 97.5 ASTM D2042
Property Min Max Test Method
Test on Emulsions
Viscosity, Saybolt Furol at 50 °C, SFS 400 ASTM D244
Storage stability test, 24-h, % 1 ASTM D6930
Demulsibility, 35 mL, 0.8 % dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate, % 20 ASTM D6936
Coating ability and water resistance:
Particle charge test Positive ASTM D244
Sieve test, % 0.1 ASTM D6933
Distillation:
Oil distillate, by volume of emulsion, % 3 ASTM D6997
Residue, % 60 ASTM D244
Tests on residue from distillation test:
Penetration, 25°C (77°F), 100 g, 5 s 40 250 ASTM D5
Ductility, 25°C (77°F), 5 cm/min, cm 20 ASTM D113
Solubility in trichloroethylene, % 97.5 ASTM D2042
Property Min Max Test Method
Test on Emulsions
Viscosity, Saybolt Furol at 50 °C, SFS 450 ASTM D244
Storage stability test, 24-h, % 1 ASTM D6930
Coating ability and water resistance:
Coating, dry aggregate Good ASTM D244
Coating, after spraying Fair ASTM D244
Coating, wet aggregate Fair ASTM D244
Coating, after spraying Fair ASTM D244
Particle charge test Positive ASTM D244
Sieve test, % 0.1 ASTM D6933
Distillation:
Oil distillate, by volume of emulsion, % 12 ASTM D6997
Residue, % 65 ASTM D244
Tests on residue from distillation test:
Penetration, 25°C (77°F), 100 g, 5 s 250 ASTM D5
Ductility, 25°C (77°F), 5 cm/min, cm 20 ASTM D113
Solubility in trichloroethylene, % 97.5 ASTM D2042
Property Min Max Test Method
Test on Emulsions
Viscosity, Saybolt Furol at 50 °C, SFS 100 ASTM D244
Storage stability test, 24-h, % 1 ASTM D6930
Particle charge test Positive ASTM D244
Sieve test, % 0.1 ASTM D6933
Cement mixing test, % 3.0 ASTM D6935
Distillation:
Residue, % 57 ASTM D244
Tests on residue from distillation test:
Penetration, 25°C (77°F), 100 g, 5 s 40 250 ASTM D5
Ductility, 25°C (77°F), 5 cm/min, cm 20 ASTM D113
Solubility in trichloroethylene, % 97.5 ASTM D2042
Property Min Max Test Method
Test on Emulsions
Viscosity, Saybolt Furol at 50 °C, SFS 100 ASTM D244
Storage stability test, 24-h, % 1 ASTM D6930
Particle charge test Positive ASTM D244
Sieve test, % 0.1 ASTM D6933
Cement mixing test, % 3.0 ASTM D6935
Distillation:
Residue, % 57 ASTM D244
Tests on residue from distillation test:
Penetration, 25°C (77°F), 100 g, 5 s 30 250 ASTM D5
Ductility, 25°C (77°F), 5 cm/min, cm 20 ASTM D113
Solubility in trichloroethylene, % 97.5 ASTM D2042